Radiolysis of the Glycolaldehyde-Na+Montmor- illonite and Glycolaldehyde-Fe3+Montmorillonite Systems in Aqueous Suspension under Gamma Radiation Fields: Implications in Chemical Evolution
The stability and reactivity of organic molecules with biological and pre-biological significance in primitive conditions are of paramount importance in chemical evolution studies. Sugars are an essential component in biological systems for the different roles that they play in living beings. The objective of the present work is to study the gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of glycolaldehyde, the simplest sugar and aqueous suspensions of glycolaldehyde-Na+-montmorillonite and glycolaldehyde-Fe3+Montmorillonite. Our results indicate that the radiolysis of the aqueous solutions of glycolaldehyde (0.03M), oxygen free, mainly produce the linear dimer known as eritriol (122 g/mol) and a sugar-like compound with six carbon atoms (180 g/mol). The experiments with the clay suspensions show that clays can adsorb glycolaldehyde and protect it from gamma irradiation. Additionally, it was observed that depending on the cation present in the clay, the percentage and the product (monomer or cyclic dimer) adsorption was different. In the case of Fe3+ Montmorillonite, this clay catalyzed the decomposition of glycolaldehyde, forming small amounts non-identified products. The analysis of these systems was performed by ATR-FTIR, UV spectroscopy, liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV), and HPLC coupled to a mass spectrometry.
Draganić, I. G., Draganić, Z. D., and Adloff, J. P. (1990). Radiation and radioactivity on earth and beyond: CRC Press.
Gabius, H.-J. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code. [Journal article]. Naturwissenschaften, 87(3), 108–121 (2000).
Gerstl, Z., & Banin, A. Fe (super 2+) -Fe (super 3+) transformations in clay and resin ion-exchange systems. Clays and clay Minerals, 28(5), 335–345 (1980).
Hollis, J. M., Lovas, F. J., & Jewell, P. R. Interstellar Glycolaldehyde: The First Sugar. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 540(2), L107 (2000).
Jes, K. J., Cécile, F., Suzanne, E. B., Tyler, L. B., Ewine, F. v. D., and Markus, S. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 757(1), L4 (2012).
Joyce, G. F. RNA evolution and the origins of life. Nature, 338(6212), 217–224 (1989).
Meléndez-López, A. L., Ramos-Bernal, S., and Ramírez-Vázquez, M. L. Stability of guanine adsorbed in a clay mineral under gamma irradiation at temperatures (77 and 298 K): Implications for chemical evolution studies. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1607(1), 111–115 (2014).
Negrón-Mendoza, A., and Albarran, G. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution. In: Chemical Evolution. Origin of life, 147-235 (1993).
Negrón Mendoza, A., Albarrán, G., and Ramos Bernal, S. (1996). Clays as natural catalyst in Prebiotic Processes Chemical Evolution: Physics of the Origin and Evolution (pp. 97-106). Springer Netherlands: Academic publishers.
O’Donnell, J. H., & Sangster, D. F. (1970). Principles of radiation chemistry, New York: Elsevier.
Yaylayan, V. A., Harty-Majors, S., and Ismail, A. A. Investigation of the mechanism of dissociation of glycolaldehyde dimer (2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxane) by FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Research, 309(1), 31–38 (1998).
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
|Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jnp.chitkara.edu.in/