Effect of Al and Mg Doping on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating
This paper investigated the influence of aluminum and magnesium doping on the optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for solar cell application. zinc acetate dehydrates was used as starting material. Aluminum chloride and tin chloride were added to each solution to serve as dopants. X-ray diffractions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed crystalline and hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the films showed more than 80% transparency in the visible region. The optical band gap of undoped znO thin film was found to be 3.12ev while that of Al-doped and Mg-doped znO film was estimated to be 3.16eV and 3.26eV respectively. The resistivity of the films measured were 2.51×10–4Ω cm for Al-doped, 2.53×10–4Ω cm for mg-doped and 2.61×10-4Ω cm for undoped znO respectively. The quality of the films deposited in this work is a promising window layer component of a solar cell. The variation in the band gap observed in this work could be explained by Burstein–Moss effect which was fully explained in the discussion section of this work.
N. Choudhury and B.K. Sarma, Bull. Matter. Sci. 32, 43 (2000). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12034-009-0007-y
E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. 93, 632 (1954). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.93.632
T.S. Moss, Proc. Phys. Soc. london B67, 775 (1954). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0370-1301/67/10/306
B.E. Sernelius, K.f. Berggren, z.C. Jin, I Hamberg and C Granqvist, Phys. Rev. B37, 10244 (1988).
R. Cebulla, R. wendt and K. J. Ellmer, Appl. Phys. 83, 1087 (1998). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.366798
B.C. Mohanty, Y.H. Jo, D.H. Yeon, I. J. Choi and Y.S. Cho, Appl. Phys. lett. 95, 62103, (2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3202399
S. Gota, J.R.R. Barrado, M. Sanchez, N.T. Barrett, J. Avila and M. Sacchi Appl Phys. lett. 86, 042104 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1856141
w. Tang and D.C. Cameron Thin Solid films 238, 83 326 (1994).
w. Göpel and u. lampe, Influence of defects on the electronic structure of zinc oxide surfaces. Physical Review B, 22(12): 6447, (1980). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.22.6447
T. Minami, H. Nanto and S. Takata, Highly Conductive and Transparent Aluminum Doped zinc Oxide Thin films Prepared by Rf Magnetron Sputtering. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 23 (Part 2, No. 1): l280.
Y. Igasaki, and H. Saito, The effects of deposition rate on the structural and electrical Properties of znO: Al films deposited on (112-bar 0) oriented sapphire substrates. Journal of Applied Physics, 70 (7): 3613-3619, (1991). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.349258
T. Minami, et al.., Group III Impurity Doped zinc Oxide Thin films Pre pared by Rf Magnetron Sputtering. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. (Part 2, No. 10): p. l781.
H. Kim, et al., Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser Deposition for organic light-emitting devices. Thin Solid films, 377-378: 798-802, (2000). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01290-6
H. Kim, et al., Indium tin oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices. Applied Physics letters, 74 (23): 3444-3446, (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.124122
H. Kim, et al., Electrical, optical, and structural properties of I dium--tin--oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices. Journal of Applied Physics, 86(11): 6451-6461, (1999).
H. Kim, et al., Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Applied Physics A: Materials Science &, 69(7), (1999).
Y.E. lee, Y.J. Kim, and H.J. Kim, J. Mater. Res. 13, 1260 (1998) http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1998.0319
Yen, w.T. lin, Y.C. Yao, P.C. Ke, J.H. Chen, Y.l. Thin Solid films 518, 3882, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.10.149
T. Minami, H. Nanto, S. Takata, Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 23, l280, (1984). http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.23.l280
D.R. Sahu, S.Y. lin, J.l. Huang, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4886, (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.10.061
H. Kim, A. Pique, J.S. Horwitz, H. Murata, z.H. Kafafi, C.M. Gilmore, D.B. Chrisey, Thin Solid films 377–378, 798, (2009).
M.A. Kaid, A. Ashour, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 3029, (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.06.045
A.f. Aktaruzzaman, G.l. Sharma, l.K. Malhotra, Thin Solid films 19, 647, (1991).
Minami, T. Sonohara, H. Takata, S. Sato, H. Jpn. J. Appl. Sci. 33 (1994) l7
w. Tang, D.C. Cameron, Thin Solid films 238, 83, (1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(94)90653-X
T. Tsuchiya, T. Emoto, T. J. Sei, Non-Cryst. Solids 178, 327, (1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(94)90302-6
M. Ohyama, H. Kozuka, T. J. Yoko, Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 1622, (1998). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02524.x
A.E. Jimenez-Gonzalez, J.A.S. urueta, R. J. Suarez-Parra, Cryst. Growth 192, 430, (1998). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0248(98)00422-9
P. Sagar, M. Kumar, R.M. Mehra, Thin Solid films 489, 94, (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.05.009
T. Schuler, M.A. Aegerter, Thin Solid films 351, 125, (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(99)00211-4
S.Y. Kuo, w.C. Chen, f.I. lai, C.P. Cheng, H.C. Kuo, S.C. wang, w.f. J. Hsieh, Cryst. Growth 287, 78, (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.047
J.H. lee, K.H. Ko, B.O. Park, J. Cryst. Growth 247, 119, (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01907-3
Y.S. Kim, w.P. Tai, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 4911, (2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.10.068
V. Musat, B. Teixeira, E. fortunato, R.C.C. Monteiro, Vilarinho, P. Surf. Coat. Techno 180–181, 65, (2004).
Copyright (c) 2014 Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles in Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications (J. Nucl. Phy. Mat. Sci. Rad. A.) by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at http://jnp.chitkara.edu.in. This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.
View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
|Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jnp.chitkara.edu.in/