Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples Using Thick Target-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (TT-PIXE) Technique
In this work thick target-proton induced x-ray emission (TT-PIXE) technique has been employed for the elemental analysis of soil samples collected from Budha nullah region of Ludhiana city, Punjab. TT-PIXE analysis of samples has been carried out using 3 MeV proton beam from 3 UD pelletron (9SDH2 from NEC, USA) facility at the Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The emitted x-rays were detected using Si(Li) detector (CANBERRA US, FWHM = 180 eV at 5.9 keV) positioned at 90° to the beam line and using suitable electronics. The trace elements 15P, 16S, 19K, 20Ca, 22Ti, 24Cr, 25Mn, 26Fe, 29Cu, 30Zn, 33As, 37Rb, 38Sr, and 82Pb were quantified in the soil samples. The quantitative estimation of PIXE spectrum of the soil samples was performed using GUPIX computer code. The presence of 24Cr, 33As, and 82Pb toxic elements in soils is likely to be due to the pollution caused by seepage of the water at the breached locations of nullah. The present study brings to focus the need to improve the effluent treatment of the industrial wastes and repair of the breached Budha nullah. In comparison to other analytical techniques for elemental analysis, PIXE is sensitive and its multi-elemental character brings advantage to investigators for the determination of minor and trace elements in a variety of soil samples.
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