Measurement of Content of 226Ra in Drinking Water From Some States of Mexican Republic by Liquid Scintillation Method
To assess the quality of drinking water in respect to the content of radioactivity, usually is carried out an screening program in the locations of interest, that program consist in pick representative samples of drinking water from the wells in that locations, water samples are analyzed to measuring the gross alpha/beta radioactivity by a low background proportional counter or a liquid scintillation system. When some sample exceeds the normative limit then it must be known which radionuclides are in that sample. Expected radionuclides in water are the NORM (normal occurring radioactive material) from the natural radioactive chains. 226Ra is frequently present in drinking water and is one of most important radionuclide because its “radiotoxicity”, the WHO [World Health Organization, Guidelines for drinking-water Quality, (2016)] recommends a reference level for 226Ra of 1 Bq/L (the dose coefficient for 226Ra is 2.8 x 10-7 Sv/Bq). From a national program of drinking water screening in the Mexican Republic, the samples that exceeded the national normative limits were picked again in the same well and analyzed by LS (liquid Scintillation), using the method of two phases with a not water miscible scintillator cocktail. Results of concentrations of 226Ra from drinking water are presented. In general the content of 226Ra in drinking water samples was lower that the guide values recommended for the WHO.
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Behaviour of Radium in Waterways and Aquifers (Results of a Co-ordinated Research Programme), IAEA-TECDOC-301, IAEA, Vienna
R. H. Gilkeson, K. Cartwright, J. B. Cowart and R. B. Holtzman, Hydrologic and Geochemical Studies of Selected Natural Radioisotopes and Barium in GroundWater in Illinois. Univ. Illinois Water Res. Center (Rept. 83-0180), (1983).
C.R. Cothern and W. L. Lappenbusch, Health Phys. 46, 503 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198403000-00001
R. T. Kay, Radium in Ground Water from Public-Water Supplies in Northern Illinois. USCS Fact Sheet 137–99. Urbana IL: US Geographical Survey, US Department of Interior. 1999. https://doi.org/10.3133/fs13799
M Eisenbud and T. Gesell Environmental radioactivity. From Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources, 4th edition (Academic Press), 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012235154-9/50010-4
W. Stumm and J. Morgan, Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters Aquatic Chemistry. Third edition. Wiley Interscience, New York, 1995.
D. Langmuir and D. Melchoir, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 2423 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(85)90242-X
Kelly W. R., Radium and barium in the Ironton-Galesville bedrock aquifer in Northeastern Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Report CR–2008–03 28, 2008.
M. R. Davidson and B. L. Dickson, Water Resources Research 22, 34 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1029/WR022i001p00034
S. Krishnaswami, W. C. Graustein, K. K. Turekian and J. F. Dowd, Water Resour. Res. 18, 1663 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i006p01663
R. M. Tripathi, V. N. Jha, S. K. Sahoo, N. K. Sethy, A. K. Shukla, V. D. Puranik and H. S. Kushwaha, Radia. Prot. Dosimetry 148, 211 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncr014
Eisenbud M. and Gesell T. Environmental radioactivity. From Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources, 4th edition (Academic Press), 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012235154-9/50010-4
Brenner D et al., PNAS 100, 13761 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2235592100
M. I. Sherif, J. Lin, A. Poghosyan and A. Abouelmagd, M. I. Sultan and N.C. Sturchio Science of the Total Environment 877, 613–614 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.129
World Health Organization (WHO), Guidelines for drinking-water Quality, Switzerland, 2016.
Secretaría de Salud. Modificación a la norma oficial mexicana NOM- NOM-127-SSA1-1994, Salud Ambiental. Agua para uso y Consumo humano. Límites permisibles de calidad y tratamiento a que debe someterse el agua para su potabilización, Mexico 1994.
Secretaría de Salud. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-201-SSA1-2015, Productos y Servicios. Agua y hielo para consumo humano, envasado y a granel. Mexico, 2015.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), https://www.inegi.org.mx, Mexico 2019.
ISO 13164-4, Test method using two-phase liquid scintillation counting, Switzerland, 2015.
IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency). Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk, 1. Paris, France, 1994.
USEPA National primary drinking water regulations; radon-222. Washington, DC, 1999.
Copyright (c) 2020 A. Ángeles et al.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
|Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jnp.chitkara.edu.in/